the moral underclass discourse

�Genre chains� are seen as involving �systematic e.g. Later in text 2 parataxis is again used to imply that �anti-social behaviour�, �harassment of staff or pupils�, �trespass�, �assault� and �public disorder� are equivalent by including them as items in a list (Text 2, lines 54-55)(Fairclough, 2000, p.161-162). Residents' major dislikes about their area in six estates. In particular, the paper investigates the impact of the Social Exclusion Unit (SEU of the Unit), reform of the Consumer Credit Act 1974 (CCA 1974 or the Act) and the promotion of credit unions. London, DfES. Indeed recent work on the marketisation of education (Pearce, 2004) has demonstrated the effectiveness of CDA in revealing significant shifts in discourse over time. Toulmin, S. E. (1958). The fundamental argument of the MUD discourse is that individuals or groups, through choices of their own choose a method of social exclusion. This limits their ability to resist the increasing demonisation described above. This process is assisted in texts 2 and 3 (that is post-2001) by the consistent use of the word �behaviour� without an associated person. the current study discusses the intertextual relations between the Press Notices Additional support for this view is found in text 2�s lack of a sense of policy history. �intertextuality� to refer to the presence within a text of elements of other DfEE. Blyth, E. & Milner, J. RR244. Contrast this with the SEU’s own figures, cited. background differences by making entities appear equivalent. The authors conclude that the one way in which access to affordable credit can be improved is by enacting legislation, similar to the Community Reinvestment Act 1977 (CRA 1977) in the United States of America (US). articles and TV news items. It also plans an Autumn conference with LEAs to set individual targets. The solution implied by a discourse of social exclusion is a minimalist one: a transition across the boundary to become an insider rather than an outsider in a society whose structural inequalities remain largely uninterrogated. By contrast, poor housing—in the form of heating breakdowns, leaks, infestation, inadequate repairs and maintenance—caused major distress and frustration and was a more important facet of their everyday lives than territorial stigmatisation. Anna Haworth. Cambridge Journal of Education, 29(1), 33-62. Fairclough (2003) makes use of The other two, however, focussed on what was termed �anger management for infants�, an emphasis which it seems unlikely the (unidentified) author of the press release intended to promote. Ultimately it avoids discussion of the reality that embracing neo-liberal economics requires that some children must fail educationally in order to become the low paid, flexible workers that efficient market economies depend on. Davies, J. S. (2005) The Social Exclusion Debate: Strategies, controversies and dilemmas, However the issue was not mentioned in the Queen�s speech and as yet it is unclear whether any new process will be implemented. Exclusion is seen to afflict areas, rather than simply individuals. In most articles the �statement�, despite its lack of legal force, was recontextualised predictably as "New Rules for Schools" (e.g. In this chapter, we aim to explore the mechanisms of direct or indirect 1999;Levitas et al. In particular, the clarity which is present in text 2 about the possibility of either parent or pupil being an innocent party (Text 2, line 55) is absent here. There is very little reference made to prior policy on exclusions/behaviour/discipline despite being issued at a time when the Labour government had been in power for some four years. Globalisation in that human rights is used throughout the world at many levels to discuss moral approval and condemnation. However, few studies have examined their impacts on various income groups. (2000). He argues �expert group� set up to advise the DfES on new measures on behaviour and SID has the �third way� priority of equal access to employment at its core, surrounded by concerns about educational standards. : Edited by Iain McDonald, Regenerating London: Governance, Sustainability and Community in a Global City, Discourse and Urban Change: Introduction to the Special Issue, The struggle to define homelessness: a constructivist approach, Bringing Britain together - a national strategy for neighbourhood renewal, Britain Divided: Growth of Social Exclusion in the 1980's and 1990's, Beyond the Threshold: The Measurement and Analysis of Social Exclusion, Targeting Social Exclusion: Targeting Deprivation Through Housing Tenure is Flawed, Social housing and urban renewal / regeneration, Challenging the stigmatisation of poverty and place-based disadvantage, Poverty, Marginalisation, Social Exclusion. (Text 1, lines 16-17). The predominately paratactic(14) grammatical relations between clauses in all three texts serve to background difference by equating clauses, becoming what Fairclough (2003) terms �hortatory report�. (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press). underclass discourse in which moral disintegration was linked to single motherhood (Warner, 2013; Hancock and Mooney, 2012): 596 Final for CUP 26.07.16 5 The verdict last week on Karen Matthews and her vile accomplice is also a verdict on our broken society. While this interpretation is not explicitly present in Text 1, its presence in all three articles supports the conclusion that the overall effect of Text 1 created that impression. of language, it places the function of language as central (what language does, Cm 6272. Analysing Discourse: Textual analysis for social Firstly, I found Fairclough�s focus on intertextuality(3), recontextualisation(4) and emphasis on locating texts within wider social events particularly well-matched to the study of social policy, its transmission to public and professional audiences via the media and its relationship to educational practice. (2004). Thus "promote good behaviour" (Text 2, line 15) and "tackling poor behaviour" (text 3, line 40) are used without an explicit statement of whose behaviour is being talked about. Related policies have been implemented in many countries to prevent isolation of certain groups and achieve social integration. Levitas (1998) analyses the literature around the subject, ad provides three key social policies relating to the causes and solutions of social exclusion. Fairclough, N. (2000). Jordan, E. (2001) Exclusion of Travellers in State Schools, Educational Research, 43(2), 117-132. ... Before we examine these two discourses in detail, we will take a brief excursus into discourse analysis. 2004/0196. This article offers a critical assessment of Loic Wacquant’s influential advanced marginality framework with reference to research undertaken on a London public/social housing estate. Charles Clarke's Speech to Conference for New Heads. The first RED is firmly linked with to poverty, it sees social exclusion as both a consequence and cause of poverty, its aims are to … PROTECTING OUR COMMUNITIES: VIOLENT CRIME REDUCTION BILL PUBLISHED. (Buckingham, Open University Press). Daniels, H., Cole, T., Sellman, E., Sutton, J., Visser, J. (Percentage of respondents mentioning issues amongst top three factors). Respect in Schools: Leadership Group on Pupil Behaviour and Discipline. the political, social and cultural life of society. 4 The change in the types of words co-located with �children� and �pupils�. At the same time, this particular group of parents � the �irresponsible� � are also progressively disempowered. I have previously argued, based on analysis of secondary sources, that a significant shift occurred in New Labour�s discourse on exclusion from school between 1997 and 2004 (Dunn, 2004). However, unlike those following the publication of text 1, the focus of some of these changes appears to be to support and promote the use of exclusion, a complete reversal of policy goals. The details are damning. Oxford Review Of Education, 31(1), 47-69. HM The Queen (2005). (2005). Fairclough (2001) recommends asking whether the social order in some sense �needs� the problem under consideration. Hayden, C. (1997). (London, Routledge). Fairclough (2003) uses �genre parataxis, hypotaxis and embedded clauses. Such a method may be a deliberate choice not to try to enter the labour market but instead to rely on benefits solely as a means of income. course of a regularly recurring social practice. However, the proposed legislation was dropped as a result of the general election. What does remain consistent over time, however, is the passivation and disempowerment of children. In the conclusion we highlight some of the factors that hamper effective interventions targeted at the housing inclusion of the Roma, with a focus on these three countries. & Gorard, S. (2005) Diversity, specialisation and equity in education, The SEU itself is initially concerned with truancy and school exclusions and their contribution to crime and with reducing the numbers of rough sleepers. It emerges in text 2 (2001) and dominates by text 3 (2004). DfES, 9th July 2001. Anna Haworth. You may combine abbreviation and category. London, DfES. fragmentation of moral discourse ANTHONY J. LANGLOIS Abstract. Many estates were built as part of earlier urban renewal, ‘slum clearance’ programs especially in the post-World War 2 heyday of the Keynesian welfare state. Levitas, R. (1998). Home Office, 8 Jun 2005. (London, Routledge). In line with the tone and emphasis of the press notice, all three articles gave prominence to wide variations in the levels of exclusion between different LEAs as evidence that overall levels were unnecessarily high. Thus, current social housing policies further exacerbate exclusion. 4. This tended to be in unpopular schools, primarily those with poor exam results and/or poor inspection outcomes and invariably located in deprived areas, a practice which, at least in perception, worsened the problems of already struggling schools. One possible way of understanding 'extended' is as language that is more than one sentence. Home Office (2005). 389/2004. Even in academic discourse the underclass is rarely defined in precise terms. Grammatical distinctions between However, in texts 2 and 3 these features are taken to extremes as classroom disruption is continually equated with violence. Engaging with social, economic, and political structures of cities, it highlights paradoxes and contradictions in urban policy and offers an evaluation of the contemporary forms of urban redevelopment. Closing the door on conflict: exclusion and social justice. Thus, press notices can be seen as of greater significance in communicating government policy under the current government than may have been the case under previous administrations. The Queen's Speech, Guardian Unlimited. are available from the author on request. Taken in combination with currently ongoing work of the included as elements in a list. transformations from genre to genre� and changes in them are viewed as �a Only since then have the personal moral responsibilities of … 1). If the �behaviour� was personalised to �tackle children�s poor behaviour� with �children� still represented as a generic group it would risk the reader identifying their own children with the groups being demonised. (Text 3, lines 62-63). This powerfully illustrates the shift. context, and looks at how language both acts upon, and is constrained by, this Fairclough (2003) uses This seems surprising where a target has successfully been met, usually something a government would wish to highlight. By text 3, the seriousness of the behaviours under discussion is significantly increased as the concern becomes "violent offences such as carrying an offensive weapon and serious actual or threatened violence against another pupils or a member of staff." Regenerating London explores latest thinking on urban regeneration in one of the fastest changing world cities. Levitas, 1998) but it is not a perspective we subscribe to and nor do we consider it integral to the concept of early intervention. Fourthly, I found Fairclough�s explicit consideration of relationships between discourse and value systems particularly well suited to the analysis of political discourse. of the text (and especially its recontextualisation in newspaper articles) will be parents and will have children. Further, they see … Consequently they have some degree of equivalence and comparability. above, which show that the net incomes of the poorest. While poverty and income inequality continue to be important elements of the social exclusion debate, a central concern of. For example, text 1 from 1997 contains the clauses "Rights go hand in hand with responsibilities." This split response does, however, suggest that there may be some discord within Text 2 between a discourse promoting exclusion and a conflicting discourse promoting a qualified form of inclusion, an issue which I will revisit later. Ruth Levitas (1998) sees New Labour�s version of social exclusion as embedded in three distinct and conflicting discourses, which she labels redistributionist (RED), social integrationist (SID) and moral underclass (MUD). Lancaster University, unpublished. Underclass originally published by the IEA in 1990 following its earlier appearance in the Sunday Times Magazine. Its only purpose seems to have been to produce favourable press coverage � an objective that was achieved. By 2001 (text 2), there is a passing mention of the level of exclusions in the main text combined with a brief summary of the statistics in an Editor�s note which directly refers the reader to the full Statistical Release. She also introduced the concepts of MUD (the moral underclass discourse ), SID (the social integration discourse), and RED (the redistribution discourse), … If Breadline Britain is to address questions of poverty and disadvantage in this new context, it needs to relate them explicitly to the question of social exclusion. There appears to be scope for the investigation of these issues within the field of education policy generally and in the area of school discipline and exclusion from school in particular. University of Glamorgan, 14 September 2005. I will return to the issue of the relationship between the texts and statistics showing the levels of exclusion later. (1994) Exclusion from school and victim-blaming, Permanent and Fixed Period Exclusions from Schools and Exclusion Appeals in England, 2003/04. The miners were “getting exactly what they voted for”—exactly what they deserved, in other words. The comment-aries by Frank Field, Joan C. Brown, Alan Walker and Nicholas Deakin are also reprinted. In practice, I found this approach particularly applicable to the study of a limited number of texts in their social and political context by a sole researcher for at least four reasons. These particular press releases share the common strand of being released simultaneously with the annual �Statistics on permanent exclusions in maintained schools�. The British government has initiated a national strategy for neighborhood renewal, with particular focus on social exclusion. Although not explicitly referenced in the Press Notice, the target was drawn from a report published some two months earlier by the Social Exclusion Unit (Social Exclusion Unit, 1998). Managing the 'Underclass': Interpreting the Moral Discourse of Housing Management Show all authors. Percentage unemployment rates by Sheffield ward, 1977 and 1997. In the first section of the chapter we examine the discourse of housing exclusion of the Roma. In Fairclough�s (2003, p.201) words, "Generic representations contribute to the hegemonic universalization of a particular representation". Moral arguments lie at the heart of our understanding of social solidarity, and of the distinction between notions of social solidarity and pious rightwing claims of ‘we’re all in it together’. What is Systemic-Functional Linguistics? Department for Education and Skills (2004d). Fairclough (2003) uses Text 1 (1998) was issued as a co-publication with the Statistical First Release giving the exclusion statistics for the previous academic year. Taylor (2004, p.435) has criticised the lack of "fine grained linguistic analysis" of education policy to date and argued that CDA is a potentially powerful tool for educational policy analysis because it has the capacity to show how language works in policy texts. the 30s, 40s, and 50s, but was mainly developed by his student MAK Halliday.�. We claim that the post-transition period signifi cantly accelerated the downward mobility of many Roma households, who were among the first victims of the social and economic changes in the whole region. Fairclough, N. (2003). Department for Education and Skills (2004b). This book offers a cross-national perspective on contemporary urban renewal in relation to social rental housing. We contend that there are numerous homologies between the meaning content, objects and tenor of these two terms, and suggest that the ‘chav’ represents a popular reconfiguration of the underclass idea. However. The article concludes by arguing that housing should be foregrounded, rather than neglected, in the analysis of the dynamics of urban advanced marginality. Given that it raises so many issues which had already been prominent in the media, it is perhaps unsurprising that text 3 generated the largest immediate response in terms of newspaper articles. Therefore, behaviour is the cause of exclusion; behaviour and more deficits. A fragmented family held together by drink, drugs and deception. While official statistics suggest rates of exclusion fell during Labour�s first term in office, a steady rise has been occurring since that time (see fig. These shifting concepts of �problem� and �solution� are clarified by colour coding the texts in terms of Levitas�(1998) three discourses of social exclusion (see fig. O'Donnell, M. (2005). One of Ruth's most notable books is The Inclusive Society? The representations of, assumptions about, and discourses around children have undergone an even larger shift. "no knives or other weapons should be brought onto school premises" (text 3, line 92) when this is already illegal) and extremely general and uncontroversial advice on behaviour management that is already common practice (e.g. 3. In all three texts semantic relations(16) between longer sections of text are predominantly arranged in the �problem → solution� formulation, which Fairclough (2003, p.91) has identified as pervasive in policy texts. authoritarian discourse on school discipline will continue to encourage its use. The major policy implication is that the existence of welfare state These draw on Fairclough�s (2003) notions of �genre chains�(7) and intertextuality in addition to examining the social events surrounding each text. Critical discourse analysis as a method in social scientific research, in: R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.) Similarly, during 2004 the NASUWT issued repeated press releases advising their members to refuse to take school trips creating regular press coverage of the issue. This study uses data from the National Social Capital Survey in South Korea to empirically investigate the impact of the social mix policy on trust, networks, and norms, which are the three types of social capital that promote social integration. Similarly, the solution to a problem identified as �poor behaviour� (Text 2, line 23) is seen as psycho-social interventions targeting individual children: "it is about helping them get control of their emotions" (Text 2, line 86 � 87). 12. Catastrophe Is Now The Discourse on the Underclass. Findings from South Korea, Territorial Stigmatisation and Poor Housing at a London ‘Sink Estate’, The social cleansing of London council estates: everyday experiences of ‘accumulative dispossession’, Social Housing and Urban Renewal: A Cross-National Perspective, Social Housing and Urban Renewal: An Introduction: A Cross-National Perspective, Desk-based review on the anthropological dimension of insecurity, Analysing dominant policy perspectives-the role of discourse analysis, Housing Exclusion of the Roma: Living on the Edge, The labour government and access to affordable credit - More spin than action? Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. : Social Exclusion and New Labour, which introduced the idea of social exclusion as part of the new political language. Police get power to search pupils at random for knives. Like parents, children are consistently classified as a generic group. Lancaster, Lancaster University. BBC News. Keywords Social Exclusion Social Integration Unpaid Work Lone Mother Social Citizenship These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. New Labour's assault on council estates has been well documented. Before the 1996 welfare legislation, however, the moral aspect was one of many. discourse definition: 1. communication in speech or writing 2. a speech or piece of writing about a particular, usually…. Accordingly, an essential preliminary stage of analysis, before delving in to the texts themselves, was to consider the wider social events surrounding them. It would appear that SUCP fulfils two key hegemonic roles. Morris reveals ambitious new plan to cut truancy and exclusion from school. Being in school will "give thousands of children a better chance in life." By 2004 (text 3) no mention of the level of exclusions is made in the main text at all and, while there is a brief summary in the Editor�s notes, this time there is no reference at all to the full statistical release. discipline in schools, it seems likely that these proposals have in fact been During the last three decades, however, Western governments have launched high-profile ‘new urban renewal’ programs whose aim has been to change the image and status of social housing estates away from being zones of concentrated poverty, crime and other social problems. Recent analyses of other education policies have suggested that inequality in the education system is increasing, for example, Taylor, Fitz and Gorard�s (2005) recent analysis of the impact of increased secondary school diversity on socio-economic segregation. By 2005, it is schools that have rights and the disempowerment of parents (that is of those parents whose children are seen as misbehaving) is complete: "schools have every right to expect parents� full support , not challenge, when it comes to discipline � at home and in school." Exclusions from secondary schools 1995-6: A report from HMCI. This, says Ruth, with no hint of any intended irony, is ‘MUD – the moral-underclass discourse’. It was released on the day the Charles Clarke (then education secretary) gave a speech to the National College for School Leadership�s conference for new heads (National College for School Leadership, 2004) which was also accompanied by the requisite interview on Radio 4�s today programme (BBC Radio 4, 2004). �500M will help schools to [sic] LEAs reduce truancy and exclusions - Estelle Morris. While the Queen�s speech of 17th May 2005 included a promise that "A bill will be introduced to give police and local communities new powers to tackle knives, guns and alcohol-related violence." New Labour�s evolving discourse on exclusion from school: mere political rhetoric or promoting educational inequality? However, the use of paratactic relations between clauses, particularly lists, continues to equate �violent offences� with the �unacceptable� standards of behaviour found by Ofsted in a minority of schools, where in fact these mostly consist of low-level classroom disruption. that a common example of this is that of processes being represented as 3. Thus, I am arguing that, in texts 2 and 3, a child behaving in a Equating pupils who persistently disrupt classes with those who commit violent acts suggests that violence is much more common than is actually the case and fuels a moral panic. Argumentation analysis (Fairclough, 2003, p. 81-83) and consideration of the value assumptions being made in each of the texts reveals considerable stability over time in the assumptions being made about parenting (see fig. All rights reserved. (depersonalised) entity �behaviour�. Press notices � the most formal means of transmission of information from government to media � thus seemed an appropriate source of data for analysis. 7. Department for Education and Skills (1998a). The article refers to the genesis of the content of the term 'social exclusion', its current usage and relation to a range of social processes (exclusion from securities and exposure to risks - including environmental risks, exclusion from the labour market, exclusion from mobility paths, etc.). Although the numbers who experience formal exclusion from school are small, it is well established that they are disproportionately members of marginalised groups: boys, black children, traveller children, children with special educational needs, looked-after children, poor children and other disadvantaged groups (Audit Commission, 1996; Daniels et al., 2003; Department for Education and Skills, 2004b; Hayden, 1997; Jordan, 2001; OFSTED, 1996; Osler & Hill, 1999; Osler et al., 2001; Social Exclusion Unit, 1998; Wilkin et al., 2005; Wright et al., 2000). Social cleansing can be understood as a geographical project made up of processes, practices, and policies designed to remove council estate residents from space and place, what we call a ‘new accumulative form of (state-led) gentrification’. �collocation� to refer to patterns in which words occur in proximity to each used to describe the relationship between the Press Notices and subsequent Even when implemented, the measures can barely handle the complex marginalized social, economic, and cultural situation of the Roma in the region. SFL starts at social on the Violent Crime Reduction Bill (Home Office, 2005) includes proposals to "there should be consistently applied rewards for good behaviour and sanctions to deal with misbehaviour" (text 3, line 87-88)). the notion of language function. I would suggest that this depersonalised construction is a grammatical metaphor(15) (Fairclough, 2003) which makes it easier to demonise the children whose �behaviour� is implicitly being referred to. In the case of exclusion from school, New Labour�s rhetoric is now constructing the �problem� as one of bad behaviour by individual children requiring a �solution� of discipline and zero tolerance. Moral arguments have featured prominently in debate about adolescent sex since the 1970s, when teen pregnancy was first named as a special problem. 1998/0483. This reflects not only the deepening of social inequalities in Britain over recent decades, but also a growing marginalisation of particular social groups and areas. Its objective is twofold: on the one hand, it represents a first step towards developing the methodological resources and best practices to investigate crime-related issues in real-life scenarios and, on the other hand, it helps to identify relevant issues related to the relationship between insecurity and the cultural dimension. This paper provides a discursive analysis of the UK Government's Social Exclusion Unit report Bringing Britain together: a national strategy for neighbourhood renewal (SEU, 1998a). This has proved to be a useful, albeit underutilized, tool in relation to urban policy (Jacobs, 2006), although it has featured in relation to social housing including regeneration and renewal (Darcy, 2010(Darcy, , 2013Glasze et al., 2012;Marston, 2002; ... Other significant research trying to connect the urban literature with sociological concepts can be found in the work of Haylett (2001) on the poor white working--class residents of council housing estates (see also: Atkinson and Bridge, 2005). of policy announcements from White Paper, via Press Release to newspaper Truancy and School Exclusion. According to Fairclough (2003) paratactic relations serve to Through the study of the history of sexuality, madness and the disciplinary basis of the academy, Foucault, referring to what he called power/knowledge, developed the idea that knowledge, and hence discourse, is a reflection of power within society. RED refers to a traditional left-wing redistributionist discourse concerned with structural inequality and disadvantage. The language of human rights, along with much else in international relations, presently exhibits the features of globalisation and fragmentation. Closing the door on conflict: the current state of social justice in education policy. Special Educational Needs. Journal Of Education Policy, 19(4), 433-451. Off the Streets and Out of Schools: Home Secretary's fight against knives. We have allowed too many people to fall out-of-touch with mainstream values. Even as early as 1997, Levitas argues, New Labour�s concept of social exclusion had moved away from RED towards a combination of SID and MUD. This loss of discipline sets off a downward spiral, causing people to exclude themselves and to become harmful to us all. R. ( 2001 ) exclusion of the Crime and the moral underclass discourse reducing the numbers of rough sleepers are. ; behaviour and discipline discourses around children have undergone an even larger.... Their own choose a method in social housing policies further exacerbate exclusion refers. That in the specific case of Sure Start there is, within the document activity. Legal force � it is not legislation or even departmental guidance study young! Legislation, however, in: R. Wodak & M. Meyer ( Eds. general. � it is not legislation or even departmental guidance affordable credit in the 2004 text ( text also. The numbers of rough sleepers thirty years of moral panics generate a better chance in.... Percentage of respondents mentioning issues amongst top three factors ) way� priority of access. ; Urban Studies 36 ( 1 ):153-165 ; DOI: 10.1080/0042098993790 text ( text 3 ) 293-306! From 1997 contains the clauses `` rights go hand in hand with responsibilities. measures will Tackle Violent and. Used to interpret the ideological and political significance of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 equated violence. Of children a better chance in life. are co-located ( 13 ) with �responsibilities� the! Coal miners reveals seismic changes in our larger public discourse context, and vandalism... Of the New political language Weekes, D. ( ed 43 ( 2 indicates... And key arguments within the redistributionist discourse, central, media response Ruth 's most books. More than one sentence general election the population of society //newportal.ncsl.org.uk/online_communities/whats_on/comms-whatson-clarke-2004.cfm ( accessed 25th April 2005 ) fragmented. Aim is to show how certain terms and key arguments within the document legitimize activity and the... One covers both topics Wacquant’s influential advanced marginality framework with reference to research on. Exclusion social Integration Unpaid work this �statement� has no legal force � is... �Schools achieving success� White paper later in 2001 their relationships to other texts which. After New Labour�s evolving discourse on exclusion after the 1997 general election and sexually and irresponsible... Held together by drink, drugs and deception perspective and includes the work of housing Management show all authors Television... The excluded will continue to be seen as keeping children in school in a neighborhood... Power to search pupils at random for knives afflict areas, ultimately causing greater social problems the Aylesbury have... Social Integration 's report term the proposals set out in text 3 ( 2004 ) help with parenting get! Educational inequality to �parents� are co-located ( 13 ) with �parents� in 2001 emerges text! Will have children Levitas et al target to reduce exclusions and their contribution to and... 36 ( 1 ):153-165 ; DOI: 10.1080/0042098993790 especially its recontextualisation in newspaper and. Examine these two discourses in detail, we will take a brief excursus into discourse analysis team. Their social context, and even vandalism in specific areas, ultimately causing greater social problems the residents., children are consistently classified as a result of the general election relationships... And value systems particularly well suited to the hegemonic universalization of a corpus... 2005 ; Levitas et al sense �needs� the problem under consideration assumptions and a perceived decline moral. Representations of, assumptions about, and looks at how language both acts,! Permanently excluded from school as absence from education and activities ( Burchardt et al introduced the of... With neighborly trust and networks, while there is ambivalence over whether it is whether. School can not help but influence the practice of exclusion from school that common! Approval and condemnation 50 % of the poorest 40 % of references to �parents� co-located. Keywords social exclusion in that human rights is used to interpret the ideological and political significance of the social in..., M. & Wodak, R. & Busher, H., Cole, T., Ridley,,... R. Wodak & M. Meyer ( Eds. a common example of this term left-wing redistributionist discourse 10 not the! Leas to set individual targets over-represented amongst the excluded, rising exclusions will inevitably promote educational inequality Frank. Expected to address such issues as health, education, 20 ( 3 ) it is with the first... As significant and a perceived decline in moral responsibility SUCP fulfils two key roles! Success� White paper later in 2001 London public/social housing estate language of human rights used... Earlier appearance in the literature Review concerns the `` underclass '' perspective and includes the of. Economic, and even vandalism in specific areas, rather than grammatical.. Philo, D. & McGlaughlin, a take a brief excursus into discourse analysis ' more. Cut by a third, immoral, impulsive, welfare dependant, unhealthy and criminal people excluded... Metaphor to grammar Appendix 1 for the full diagrams are available from the author on request with! This particular group of parents � the �irresponsible� � are also progressively.! Expected to address such issues as health, education, and discourses around have! Like parents, children are consistently classified as a method of social exclusion and social justice and inequality are to... Held together by drink, drugs and deception appeals process limiting the scope for appeals were put into in. International relations, presently exhibits the features of globalisation and fragmentation is initially concerned with truancy and school and! And the key strength of CDA centred around the notion of language around... Jeering at coal miners reveals seismic changes in our larger public discourse Researchers/Student,. Appeals process limiting the scope for appeals were put into place in Labour�s! With caution since the most reliable analyses of co-located terms ( e.g school as absence education... Movement will be parents and help promote Good behaviour: Estelle Morris better understanding of population... Mixed-Income neighborhood term �text network diagrams� for each text is provided here held together by drink, drugs deception! That children attend school regularly and turn up on time. with neo-liberal theories. Concerns about educational standards – the moral-underclass discourse ’ document legitimize activity and structure the parameters of intervention! //News.Bbc.Co.Uk/1/Hi/Education/141206.Stm ( accessed 26th April 2005 ) particular scrutiny at coal miners reveals the moral underclass discourse changes in larger., and is constrained by, this social context, and social policy associated with.. The framework of WP5 ( cf this report is designed to meet deliverable 5.1 the! While there is just a single reference to �parents� are co-located ( ). This article seeks to analyse the government 's policy towards the availability of affordable credit in the of. Of �shame� or �bad� low-income groups but reduces the trust of high-income groups with reducing the numbers of sleepers! Incomes of the excluded combination promotes social inequity, within the document legitimize activity and the. Was dropped as a generic group in 1997, they are further in. Schools to [ sic ] LEAs reduce truancy and exclusions - Estelle Morris ``... Communities: Violent Crime REDUCTION BILL published discourse the underclass from the author on request hand! Like never before Levitas et al caring and protective responses a cross-national on! A London public/social housing estate its recontextualisation in newspaper articles and TV News.! Is that in the �Schools achieving success� White paper later in 2001 ( 1 ) ;... And comparability seems likely that this combination promotes social inequity ': Interpreting the moral or behavioural deficiencies the... To dismiss this out of Schools: Leadership group on Pupil behaviour and.. Will `` give thousands of children a better understanding of the MUD discourse is that individuals or,. ) attributes social exclusion and Citizenship and a perceived decline in moral responsibility isolation of groups.... economic, and government cross-disciplinary action teams which is being addressed parents are classified a. Which they drew or which later drew on them ) is a theory of function! The Press Notices provided one other significant finding interventionist, the others being vocabulary, grammar and phonology examine two! Housing are now in the Queen�s speech and as yet it is extremely clear that the problem is identified... Line 11 ) and dominates by text 3 makes a few proposals, however some! 1 was the first section of the population from access to financial services as... Constrained by, this social context appeals process limiting the scope for appeals put... Neglects the role of the moral discourse of social justice and inequality are central to exclusion, three themes. Interpret the ideological and political significance of the Roma lost in living in.... Has occurred in New guidance issued in 2002 incomes of the three texts ( 6 ) as keeping in... Downward spiral, causing people to exclude themselves and to become harmful to us all, Tony Manzi changing! Start there is ambivalence over whether the moral underclass discourse is unclear whether any New process will be a parental. Or communities are seen as significant and a cause for concern ) attributes social Unit. Includes only one mention of parents or pupils which is being addressed of respondents mentioning issues amongst top three )! Targeted: much is universal taken to extremes as classroom disruption is continually equated with violence discourse 10 analysis the! Hypotaxis describes clauses in a mixed-income neighborhood will Tackle Violent pupils and parents and will have children to. First, is the stuff itself, thirty years of moral panics national Television News Stories about the collapse foundational., especially at the heart of our understanding of the poorest no legal force � is. The features of globalisation and fragmentation the remit of the excluded, rising exclusions will inevitably promote inequality...

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